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Hendrik N Poinar, Carsten Schwarz, Ji Qi, Beth Shapiro, Ross D Macphee, Bernard Buigues, Alexei Tikhonov, Daniel Huson, Lynn P Tomsho, Alexander Auch, Markus Rampp, Webb Miller, and Stephan C Schuster (2006)

Metagenomics to Paleogenomics: Large-Scale Sequencing of Mammoth DNA.

Science.

We sequenced 28 million base pairs of DNA in a metagenomics approach using a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) sample from Siberia. Thanks to exceptional sample preservation and use of a novel emulsion polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing technique, 13 million base pairs (45.4\%) of the sequencing reads were identified as mammoth DNA. Sequence identity between our data and African elephant (Loxodonta africana) was 98.55\%, consistent with a paleontologically based divergence date of 5 to 6 million years. The sample includes a surprisingly small diversity of environmental DNAs. The high percentage of endogenous DNA recoverable from this single mammoth would allow for completion of its genome, unleashing the field of paleogenomics.

10.1126/science.1123360
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